||CERES - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant
The CERES experiment is one of the highest
priority scientific satellite instruments developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). CERES products include
both solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation from the top of the atmosphere to the
Earth's surface. Cloud properties are determined using simultaneous measurements by
other EOS instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).
Analyses of the CERES data, which build upon the foundation laid by previous missions
such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), will lead to a better understanding
of the role of clouds and the energy cycle in global climate change.
||CALIPSO - Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and
Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations
CALIPSO was selected as an Earth System Science Pathfinder satellite mission in December
1998 to address the role of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's radiation budget. NASA
Langley Research Center is leading the mission and is providing overall project management,
systems engineering, payload mission operations, data validation, processing
and archival. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is providing a PROTEUS spacecraft, the imaging infrared radiometer
(IIR), payload-to-spacecraft integration and spacecraft mission operations. CALIPSO was
developed through collaboration between NASA and the French space agency, CNES.
||HSRL - High Spectral Resoluation Lidar
The HSRL instrument is an innovative technology that is similar to radar; however, with lidar, radio waves are replaced
with laser light. Lidar allows researchers to see the vertical dimension of the atmosphere, and the advanced HSRL makes
measurements that can even distinguish among different aerosol types and their sources. The HSRL technique takes advantage
of the spectral distribution of the lidar return signal to discriminate aerosol and molecular signals and thereby measure
aerosol extinction and backscatter independently. It measures aerosol backscatter and depolarization
at 532 and 1064 nm and aerosol extinction at 532 nm.
||LASE - Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment
Vaporized water is an invisible gas that is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The
distribution of atmospheric water vapor is of fundamental importance to weather and climate,
atmospheric radiation studies, global hydrological cycle and atmospheric chemistry.
The LASE program was initiated as an effort to produce an autonomous system for
measuring water vapor levels from airborne and spaceborne platforms using LIDAR technology.
||LITE - Lidar In-space Technology Experiment
LITE is a three-wavelength backscatter lidar developed by NASA Langley Research Center
that flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery in September of 1994.
||LiDAR - Light Detection and Ranging
The LiDAR group at NASA Langley Research Center has been developing and applying advanced
lidar systems to a
broad range of atmospheric investigations. These activities have included the development
and application of
airborne Differential Absorption LiDAR (DIAL) systems for studies of ozone, water vapor, aerosols
||SAGE II - Stratospheric Aerosol and
Gas Experiment II
The SAGE II mission provided the scientific community with a long-term, global
depiction of the distribution of aerosol, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide.
The data provide unique and crucial input to the understanding of global, seasonal to
interannual variability in climate and, in particular, trends in stratospheric ozone.
||SAGE III - Stratospheric Aerosol and
Gas Experiment III
SAGE III's role was to provide global, long-term measurements of key components of the
Earth's atmosphere. The most important of these are the vertical distribution of aerosols
and ozone from the upper troposphere through the stratosphere.