Aeronautics Research Introduction
Summary: LARGE performs research and analyses to support the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics goal of reducing aviation impacts on the environment. This work is sponsored by the Advanced Air Transport Technologies Project (Ruben Delrosario, PI) and includes conducting laboratory, test cell/stand, engine-on-wing, airport and in-flight experiments to gain a better understanding of exhaust composition and the links between combustion technologies and engine emissions. We also investigate the evolution of aircraft emissions in the atmosphere, particularly focusing on how fuel and exhaust properties influence the formation and microphysical characteristics of condensation trails (contrails) and cirrus clouds.
To learn more about NASA Aeronautics visit: http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/
Some Frequently Asked Questions:
LARGE is in the Science Directorate, why does it conduct aeronautics research?
What types of experimental investigations does LARGE perform?
Why do we care about aircraft PM emissions?
What are the benefits of burning alternative jet fuels such as hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) as opposed to petroleum-based fuels?
Who is NASA helping with PM emission and alternative fuel research – who is our stakeholder?
Why do we need to do flight tests? Virgin, Continental, Lufthansa and other operators have already done “green flights”
Why do we need to better understand PM issues at altitude? Is it really a problem?
Zheng, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Liu, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Anderson, B. E.; and Collins, J. E., Jr.: An Analysis of Aircraft Exhaust Plumes from Accidental Encounters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2579-2582, 1994.
Miake-Lye, RC; Anderson, BE; Cofer, WR; Wallio, HA; Nowicki, GD; Ballenthin, JO; Hunton, DE; Knighton, WB; Miller, TM; Seeley, JV; Viggiano, AA. 1998. SOx oxidation and volatile aerosol in aircraft exhaust plumes depend on fuel sulfur content. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (10): 1677-1680.
Anderson, BE; Cofer, WR; Bagwell, DR; Barrick, JW; Hudgins, CH; Brunke, KE. 1998. Airborne observations of aircraft aerosol emissions I: Total nonvolatile particle emission indices. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (10): 1689-1692.
Anderson, BE; Cofer, WR; Barrick, JD; Bagwell, DR; Hudgins, CH. 1998. Airborne observations of aircraft aerosol emissions II: Factors controlling volatile particle production. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (10): 1693-1696.
Campos, TL; Weinheimer, AJ; Zheng, J; Montzka, DD; Walega, JG; Grahek, FE; Vay, SA; Collins, JE; Wade, LO; Sachse, GW; Anderson, BE; Brune, WH; Tan, D; Faloona, I; Baughcum, SL; Ridley, BA. 1998. Measurement of NO and NOy emission indices during SUCCESS. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (10): 1713-1716.
Vay, SA; Anderson, BE; Sachse, GW; Collins, JE; Podolske, JR; Twohy, CH; Gandrud, B; Chan, KR; Baughcum, SL; Wallio, HA. 1998. DC-8-based observations of aircraft CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O(g) emission indices during SUCCESS. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (10): 1717-1720.
Jensen, EJ; Toon, OB; Tabazadeh, A; Sachse, GW; Anderson, BE; Chan, KR; Twohy, CW; Gandrud, B; Aulenbach, SM; Heymsfield, A; Hallett, J; Gary, B. 1998. Ice nucleation processes in upper tropospheric wave-clouds observed during SUCCESS. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (9): 1363-1366.
Jensen, EJ; Toon, OB; Pueschel, RF; Goodman, J; Sachse, GW; Anderson, BE; Chan, KR; Baumgardner, D; Miake-Lye, RC. 1998. Ice crystal nucleation and growth in contrails forming at low ambient temperatures. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.25 (9): 1371-1374.
Jensen, EJ; Toon, OB; Kinne, S; Sachse, GW; Anderson, BE; Chan, KR; Twohy, CH; Gandrud, B; Heymsfield, A; Miake-Lye, RC. 1998. Environmental conditions required for contrail formation and persistence. J. GEOPHYS. RES. ATMOS.103 (D4): 3929-3936.
Kondo, Y; Koike, M; Ikeda, H; Anderson, BE; Brunke, KE; Zhao, Y; Kita, K; Sugita, T; Singh, HB; Liu, SC; Thompson, A; Gregory, GL; Shetter, R; Sachse, G; Vay, SA; Browell, EV; Mahoney, MJ. 1999. Impact of aircraft emissions on NOx in the lowermost stratosphere at northern midlatitudes. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.26 (20): 3065-3068.
Anderson, BE; Cofer, WR; Crawford, J; Gregory, GL; Vay, SA; Brunke, KE; Kondo, Y; Koike, M; Schlager, H; Baughcum, SL; Jensen, E; Zhao, YJ; Kita, K. 1999. An assessment of aircraft as a source of particles to the upper troposphere. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.26 (20): 3069-3072.
Thompson, AM; Sparling, LC; Kondo, Y; Anderson, BE; Gregory, GL; Sachse, GW. 1999. Perspectives on NO, NOy and fine aerosol sources and variability during SONEX. GEOPHYS. RES. LETT.26 (20): 3073-3076.
Hunton, DE; Ballenthin, JO; Borghetti, JF; Federico, GS; Miller, TM; Thorn, WF; Viggiano, AA; Anderson, BE; Cofer, WR; McDougal, DS; Wey, CC. 2000. Chemical ionization mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 emissions from jet engines in flight and test chamber operations. J. GEOPHYS. RES. ATMOS.105 (D22): 26841-26855.
Koike, M; Kondo, Y; Ikeda, H; Gregory, GL; Anderson, BE; Sachse, GW; Blake, DR; Liu, SC; Singh, HB; Thompson, AM; Kita, K; Zhao, Y; Sugita, T; Shetter, RE; Toriyama, N. 2000. Impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor region. J. GEOPHYS. RES. ATMOS.105 (D3): 3665-3677.
Vay, SA; Anderson, BE; Jensen, EJ; Sachse, GW; Ovarlez, J; Gregory, GL; Nolf, SR; Podolske, JR; Slate, TA; Sorenson, CE. 2000. Tropospheric water vapor measurements over the North Atlantic during the Subsonic Assessment Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX). J. GEOPHYS. RES. ATMOS.105 (D3): 3745-3755.
Vay, SA; Anderson, BE; Thornhill, KL; Hudgins, CH. 2003. An assessment of aircraft-generated contamination on in situ trace gas measurements: Determinations from empirical data acquired aloft. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY20 (11): 1478-1487.
Miller, TM; Ballenthin, JO; Hunton, DE; Viggiano, AA; Wey, CC; Anderson, BE. 2003. Nitric acid emission from the F100 jet engine. J. GEOPHYS. RES. ATMOS.108 (D1): art. no.-4032.
Anderson, BE; E. Winstead, C. Hudgins, J. Plant, H.-S. Branhan, L. Thornhill, H. Boudries, M. Canagaratna, R. Miake-Lye, J. Wormhoudt, and D. Worsnop, T. Miller, J. Ballenthin, D. Hunton, and A. Viggiano, D. Pui and H.-S. Han, D. Blake and M. McEachern, 2003, Overview of results from the NASA experiment to characterize aircraft volatile aerosol and trace species emissions (EXCAVATE), Proc. Atm. Avia. And Climate, Friedrichschafen, Germany.
Herndon, SC; Onasch, TB; Frank, BP; et al. Particulate emissions from in-use commercial aircraft, AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 39 (8): 799-809 AUG 2005
Gao, RS; Fahey, DW; Popp, PJ; et al. Measurements of relative humidity in a persistent contrail, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 40 (9): 1590-1600 MAR 2006
Anderson, BE; Chen, G; Blake, DR, Hydrocarbon emissions from a modern commercial airliner, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 40 (19): 3601-3612 JUN 2006
Knighton, WB; Rogers, TM; Anderson, BE; et al., Quantification of aircraft engine hydrocarbon emissions using proton transfer reaction mass Spectrometry JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER, 23 (5): 949-958 SEP-OCT 2007
Wey, CC; Anderson, BE; Wey, C; et al., Overview on the aircraft particle emissions experiment JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER, 23 (5): 898-905 SEP-OCT 2007
Herndon, SC; Wood, EC; Northway, MJ; et al. Aircraft Hydrocarbon Emissions at Oakland International Airport ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 43 (6): 1730-1736 MAR 15 2009.
Onasch, TB; Jayne, JT; Herndon, S; et al. Chemical Properties of Aircraft Engine Particulate Exhaust Emissions JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER, 25 (5): 1121-1137 SEP-OCT 2009.
Timko, M.T, et al. Particulate Emissions of Gas Turbine Engine Combustion of a Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel, ENERGY AND FUELS, in press, 2010.
Peck, J. et al., Measurement of volatile particulate matter emissions from aircraft engines using a simulated plume aging system, Proc. of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, GT2011, June 6-10, 2011, Vancouver, Canada, GT2011-46626.
Yu, Z., et al., Characterization of Lubrication Oil Emissions from Aircraft Engines, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 44, 9530–9534, 2010.
B. E. Anderson, A. J. Beyersdorf, C. H. Hudgins,J. V. Plant, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, L. D. Ziemba, R. Howard, E. Corporan, R. C. Miake-Lye, S. C. Herndon, M. Timko, E. Woods, W. Dodds, B. Lee and G. Santoni, P. Whitefield, D. Hagen, P. Lobo, W. B. Knighton, D. Bulzan, K. Tacina, C. Wey, R. Vander Wal, A. Bhargava, J. Kinsey, D. S. Liscinsky, NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA/TM–2011-217059, 2011.
B. E. Anderson, A. J. Beyersdorf, Luke D. Ziemba, K.L. Thornhill and E.L. Winstead, NASA Alternative Fuel Research, AAIA Conf., paper and invited oral presentation, Honolulu, HI, June 28, 2011.
M.T. Timko, Z. Yu, T.B. Onasch, H.-W. Wong, R.C. Miake-Lye, A.J. Beyersdorf, B.E. Anderson, K.L. Thornhill, E.L. Winstead, E. Corporan, M.J. DeWitt, C.D. Klingshirn, C. Wey, K. Tacina, D.S. Liscinsky, R. Howard, and A. Bhargava, Particulate Emissions of Gas Turbine Engine Combustion of a Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel, Energy & Fuels, 24, 5883–5896, 2010.
Kinsey, J.S., et al., Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 62, 420–430, 2012.
Yu, Z., et al., Direct Measurement of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a Cavity-Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS)-Based Extinction Monitor, AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 45(11),1319-1325, DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2011.592873, 2011.
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